NON-CURRENT LIABILITIES 10% Redeemable

bodies need to evaluate financial reports of businesses before lending them money; 3) the government also analyzes financial statement of different companies so as to prove if they paying taxes accurately ;4) the general public as well as the mass media may be interested in analyzing the statements of certain businesses. 1.2-What are the different aspects of legal and regulatory framework that relates to financial statements? There are different methods which can be followed when presenting financial statements. Rules-based accounting is made up of precise rules that must be observed during preparation of financial statements. Many accountants prefer the use of this method so that they reduce their liability in the event misjudgments. In situation whereby the management decides not to use rule-base accounting, it can choose to employ other accounting policies in preparing their financial statement (Guilding, 2002). However, this can be challenging because there are some policies which do conflict. Companies which need to included in stock exchange in more than a single country need to prepare their statements in accordance with GAAP. There are several reasons why it is necessary to have regulatory framework guiding financial reporting within countries and on international level. One of the reasons regard to irregular information (Moncarz and Portocarrero, 1986). Assume a scenario whereby the manager of th e company is the one responsible for preparation of financial reports. This responsibility gives the manager the opportunity to access financial information which other members of the organization do not. Managers can take advantage of this privilege to exploit the statements so as to favor their own personal interest. Therefore, there must be regulation on reporting to stop insiders from exploiting financial statements. Another important factor to be considered is reliability and relevance of financial statements. Access the implication for users of financial statements? The different aspects of legal and regulatory framework have significant implication for users of financial statements. Some of the users of financial statements have complained that some of the regulations add unimportant complexities. The basis behind their argument is that there are some rules which are extremely detailed, with standards extending to more than hundred pages. Others have argued that these rules provide loopholes for financial engineering and fail to provide a true and fair image of the business. It has also been noted that sometimes these rules fail to capture the details of targeted cases. Another negative phase of these rules is that they fail to provide solutions in the event of gaps (Kotas, 1999). Management can also choose to observe all those accounting treatments that favor their interests and avoid those that will define real position of the business. However, it is worth to acknowledge the fact that these rules play a major role in ensuring a fair competit ion of international businesses which operate in more than one national market. However, it is fairer to say that observance of these legal and regulatory frameworks significantly contribute to preparation of statements which portray a companys real performance. The different legal and regulatory frameworks should be flexible enough to accommodate new situations in the business. A relevant and reliable makes it easier for users of financial information to analyze those statements. Describe how different laws and regulations relate with accounting and reporting standards? (Pass P4) Provide the regulatory framework of any country other than UK and compare it with UK regulatory framework (Distinction 1) There are several accounting bodies which guide the accounting environment and significantly determine the success of a business. Security and exchange commission aimed at eliminating abusive stock market collision that had accumulated and resulted to instability in stock markets. Security and exchange commission ensures that publicly reporting business adhere with the generally agreed accounting principles. Financial accounting standards board (FASB) provides a plane set of standards to be observed when presenting financial statements to the public (Atkinson et al,1995). It aims at shielding the investors from fraud of business owners. Internal accounting standards board was founded to come up with comprehensible financial accounting reports (Messenger and Shaw, 1993). There is also the government accounting standards board (GASB) which aimed at establishing standards of helpful information that will aid users of reports to understand the reports in a much better way. On the second part of this question, the country of my choice is Kenya. In 1998, the council of Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya set IFRS (International financial reporting standards) as the accounting standard in Kenya. From then henceforth, all the companies were requested to prepare their financial statements in accordance with IFRS. However, in Kenya there is a significant gap that has been observed between applicable accounting standards and the real practice by companies. In 1969, the UK ICAEW issued the statement of intent on accounting standard. This statement made it clear that standards will be generated in future with four main goals. The first goal was to reduce the dissimilarities and diversity in accounting principles. Second, was to disclose the accounting foundations. Third, disclose the diversion from established standards and eventually explain the broad exposure for main new accounting proposals. There have been a number of committees which have been formed si nce then all with the aim of improving accounting disclosure. Requirement 2.1 The following is a trial balance from auto electrical ltd as at 31 March 2005  £  £ Ordinary shares of 50 p each 400,000 10% Redeemable Preference shares of  £1 each 200,000 Retained profits as at 1 April 2004 42,475 Office block (Land  £40,000) 170,000 Plant and machinery 730,000 Office equipment 110,000 Motor vehicles 200,000 Provision for depreciation Plant and Machinery 224,500 Office equipment 24,500 Motor vehicles 80,000 Accounts receivables/Payables 500,000 356,226 Provision for doubtful debts 1,000 Manufacturing wages 501,400 Inventory as at 1 April 2004 raw materials 70,000 Work in progress 126,000 Finished goods 250,000 Transport expenses 85,013 Returns inwards 15,106 Purchases of raw materials 518,600 Sales 2,600,147 Bank balance 60,020 Directors salaries 60,114 Maintenance of plan t 30,102 Rent 40,063 Advertising 190,048 Rates 50,171 Insurance 20,116 Office salaries 166,013 Light and heat 46,027 Factory power 30,014 Bank interest 7,070 Interim dividends on preference shares 10,000 General administration expenses 63,011 _________ 3,988,868 3,988,868 Further information is as follows: Depreciation is to be provided as follows: Plant and machinery 15% on cost. (Production expense) Office equipment 10% on cost (administration expense) Motor vehicles 25% on WDV (distribution cost) New office blocks 2% on cost (Administration expense). As at 31 March 2005 rates were prepaid by  £3,140 . Outstanding light and heat as at 31 march 05 is  £1,214 and rent is  £2,321 Rent, rates, light and heat and insurance are to be apportioned in the ratio of 5:1 in relation to factory and office expenses. The company makes a provision of 1% for doubtful debts on all accounts receivables. The production director is paid  £20,000.  £64,237 is included Office salaries  £100,000 is to be provided for corporation tax During the year 1,500 electrical equipments were transferred from the factory to the warehouse. Only 100 equipments were in hand at the end of the year. At 31 March 2005 Inventory was: Raw materials  £56,200. Work in progress  £47,190. Finished goods ? Classifying expenses by function Auto transmission Income Statement for the year ended 31/03/2005  £  £ Revenue 2,585,041 Cost of sales (1,586,692) Gross profit 998,349 Expenses Distribution expenses 373,298 Administration expenses 244,489 Finance costs 27,070 (644,857) Profit before tax 353,492 Income tax expense (100,000) Profit for the period 253,492 Classifying expenses by nature Auto Transmission  £  £ Revenue 2,585,041 Expenses Raw materials consumed 532,40 Changes in finished goods and work in progress 233,332 Depreciation 153,100 Employee benefits 727,527 Other expenses 558,120 Finance costs 27,070 2,231,549 Profit before tax 353,492 Income tax expense (100,000) Profit for the period 253,492 Auto Transmission Balance sheet as at 31/03/2005  £  £ NON-CURRENT ASSETS Property, Plant and Equipment 727,900 CURRENT ASSETS Inventory 198,868 Accounts receivables 495,000 Prepayments 3,980 697,848 TOTAL ASSETS 1,425,748 EQUITY AND LIABILITIES Ordinary share capital 400,000 RESERVES Retained profits 295,967 Shareholders funds 695,967 NON-CURRENT LIABILITIES 10% Redeemable preference shares 200,000 CURRENT LIABILITIES Bank overdraft 60,020 Trade payables 356,226 Accruals 13,535 Current tax 100,000 529,781 Total Equity and Liabilities 1,425,748 Workings  £ Revenue 2,600,147 Less return inwards (15,106) 2,585,041 Cost of sales Opening inventory : Finished goods Cost of finished goods 250,000 1,682,170 Less: closing inventory of finished goods (95,478) 1,586,692 Factory cost of finished goods Manufacturing account  £  £ Opening inventory : raw materials 70,000 Purchases of raw materials 518,600 588,600 Less: Closing stock inventory raw materials (56,200) Raw materials consumed 532,400 Direct labour: Manufacturing wages 501,400 PRIME COSTS 1,033,800 Factory overheads Directors salaries : Factory manager 20,000 Maintenance of plant 30,102 Rent 35,320 Rates 39,192.50 Insurance 16,063 Light and hear 39,376.50 Factory power 30,014 Depreciation on plant 109,500 319,560 Total cost of production 1,353,369 Add: Opening WIP 126,000 1,479,360 Less: Closing W.I.P 47,190 Factory cost of finished goods 1,42,170 Value of closing adhesive magnets this microgravity state creates the human body change because it is not neutralizing the ability this microgravity state creates the human body change because it is not neutralizing the ability
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buy neodymium magnets continuing and watered had entailed that the great majority of her thought for as far back as a half a year while voyaging. Her fingers felt that the pushback in the berries’ tissue. “Not continuing and watered had entailed that the great majority of her thought for as far back as a half a year while voyaging. Her fingers felt that the pushback in the berries’ tissue. “Not
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